The main center of his cult was the temple of E-kur, or the Mountain House, at Nippur, and Enlil was often called “the great mountain” and “king of the foreign lands.”. The fire goddesses represent the element of fire in its many different forms; from the spectacular volcano Goddesses to the more benign Goddesses of the hearth fire. He was also the minister of Enlil. The principal temple of Utu, called E-babbar or White House was at Sippar. Ki: The Earliest Sumerian earth Goddesses. Ninkasi: Goddess of alcohol. In art, Enki was represented as a seated god with a long beard surrounded by channels of water. The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. The goddess Gula (whose name means “great”) was a healing goddess who understood disease and became the patroness of doctors. With the move from an agricultural society to an urban one the old nature deities became the patron Goddesses of the new city states. The Sumerians believed that first there was the primeval sea that gave rise to a united heaven and earth. Many people believe that these Gods were of a reptilian nature. She was either the wife of Ninurta, the god of war, or Abu, the god of plants. Not all gods and goddesses of the ancient Sumerian culture were created equally. I have been reading about the Sumerian Gods for quite some time. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. In other religions, the faithful are afforded the comfort of life after death. One of them is Utu , … Her son, Damu, was known for driving away demons and was especially honored at Isin, Larsa, and Ur. An and Ki produced within or between them Enlil, air, and as the air began to stir in the darkness within the mountain, it separated sky and earth. Gods and Goddesses. Ama -Arhus Fertility Goddess also known as Amat- Ama Arhus. (Foothills are hills that are near Goddess of childbirth. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. In Sumerian myth, An and Ki produced a variety of plants on the earth. There was an unbroken rule that no one who entered the underworld could return without producing a substitute. Utu’s main function was to supervise the moral order, since justice, truth, and righteousness were important to the Sumerians. The city associated with Anu was Uruk. Many other Sumerian gods and goddesses were thought to be his children in different myths. Nanna and his wife Ningal were the parents of Utu, the sun god, who was said to “rise in the mountains of the east and set in the mountains of the west.”. Unique to Sumerian religion is the fact that there is an absolute inferiority of men to gods. Ninhursag: Great Mother Goddess. Shala, the Goddess of Grain and Compassion Shala is a Sumerian goddess and a mountain on Venus, the Shala Mons, has been named after her. The Tablet of Destinies was one of the objects which gave Enlil the power to determine the destinies of the world. Nanna, the moon god, was the major astral deity of the Sumerians, born of Enlil, the air god, and his wife Ninlil, the air goddess. Mesopotamian gods and goddesses are known from the literature of the Sumerian people, the oldest written language on our planet.Those stories were written down by city administrators whose jobs involved the upkeep of the religion, along with the upkeep of commerce and trade. See more ideas about Ishtar, Sumerian, Gods and goddesses. It is An who, in Sumerian tradition, took over heaven when it was separated from earth, creating the universe as we know it. Their gods An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna were the seven gods who “decreed the fates,” together with around 3,000 more. By this time the world had come into being, for the sky (An) by expansion of air (Enlil) had reached a great height, and the earth (Ki) had made a solid floor below, with sun and moon to bring light. Also known as Nillina. Below is a list of the main Sumerian Goddesses with details on their main area of influence and alternative spellings. The gods were known by different names depending on whether the scribes wrote Sumerian or Akkadian. The word Sumerian was not coined by the people themselves but by the Akkadians who took over the region and created the Babylonian civilisation. Heaven is the Indus empire, earth represents Sumer and its various kingdoms, and the underworld represents the region south of Mesopotamia that include the islands in the Persian Gulf. Especially among the rulers who hated each other even though they were siblings. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. In Sumerian tradition, he was represented with a saw knife and fiery rays. In many books, he is described as a violent and destructive god, but it is clear that in the myths, he was a friendly, fatherly god, who ensured the safety and wellbeing of all humans, particularly the inhabitants of Sumer. She was also famous for taking one hundred divine decrees governing all cultural and political achievements which made up the Sumerian civilization in Enki. Heaven and earth was very confusing until I discovered something. Nanshe: Associated with fishing, justice, prophecy and fertility. Major Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Adad – Adad had a twofold aspect, being both the giver and the destroyer of life. Enlil was one of the most important gods in the pantheon. According to Sumerian poetry, the goddess Ninmah acted as a midwife. Then to see better, Enlil begot the moon-god Nanna, who in turn begot the sun-god Utu, presumably to make the light brighter. Nanna brought light to the dark lapis lazuli sky. Heaven consisted of the sky and the space above the sky which was called the “great above” where the sky gods lived. In Sumerian poetry, he was concerned with every aspect of human life and organized every feature of the civilized world in great detail. Although one of the most important deities, An was ill-defined and he is represented in art with obscure iconography and attributes. See more ideas about gods and goddesses, sumerian, mesopotamia. He was represented with flowing streams of water and swimming fishes. Nidaba: Goddess of learning writing and astrology. "The Sumerians believed that the first thing that existed was the primordial sea (associated with the goddess Nammu), from which emerged heaven (An) and earth (Ki), united as though they were a large mountain in the midst of the sea. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. Nammu was the one who gave birth to the first deities An (the god of heaven) and Ki (the earth goddess) and to many more of the ancient gods. The “little ones” (the stars), were scattered around like grain while the “big ones” (the planets), walked around the moon. We know that they were pantheistic and their gods were the personification of the elements and natural forces. The union of An and Ki produced Enlil (the air god), who went on to separate the heaven father An from the earth mother Ki. Sumerians are an early civilization to have Gods of Wealth. Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Sumerian Gods Is Anu holding the symbolic Holy Grail of a Bloodline he created? Those gods were the god of sky, wind, foothills, and fresh water. The god Nusku, a god associated with fire and light, was regarded as his son. There was bitter rivalry among the three. According to the some resources, these gods came from Nibiru - 'Planet of the Crossing.' Gula gave birth to the healing god Damu, and to the god Ninazu (also associated with healing). Various Sumerian poems are about Inanna and her love for Dumuzi and how she was ultimately responsible for his death. Ningal: She is known as the "Great Lady" Goddess of reeds, the wife of the Moon God, Nanna and mother of Inanna. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. Sin (or Nanna in Sumerian, not to be confused with the Norse deity) was the tutelary god of Ur, one of the major ancient Mesopotamian urban centers that originally occupied a coastal position near the mouth of river Euphrates (in what is now southern Iraq). About 3-4 years ago, I started researching ancient Egyptian spirituality. Ninlil: Goddess of the air. The Sumerian expression for “universe” is an-ki, literally “heaven-earth.” The sky gods lived in heaven, while the earth, consisting of the surface of the earth and the space below which was called the “great below” was where the underworld or chthonic deities lived. See more ideas about Sumerian, Gods and goddesses, Mythology. The 7 Lesser Gods and Goddesses Ancient Sumerian Anunnaki. Ereshkigal: Originally a sky Goddess kidnapped and taken to the underworld where she became Queen. He therefore had the moon god Nanna brighten the darkness of his house, followed by the sun god Utu, who became even greater than his father. His daughter was Mamu, one of several goddesses associated with dreams (mamud being the Sumerian word for dream). Nanna was one the patron deities of Ur. His wife was the air goddess Ninlil, and among the children of Enlil are the goddess Inanna and the gods Nanna, Ninurta, Utu, and many more. Ancient civilizations gave equal opportunity to deities of either gender, but with the passage of time, the Sumerian Gods took a greater role and the goddesses receded in the background. Agriculture and compassion are co-related when it comes to Sumerian mythology as a bountiful harvest shows the compassion of the gods. In Sumerian religion, the most powerful and important deities in the pantheon were the … Anunit, Astarte and Atarsamain are alternative names for Ishtar. Nov 16, 2020 - Explore Sandra Jacobson's board "Gods and Goddesses" on Pinterest. Inanna descended to the nether world and approached Ereshkigal’s temple of lapis lazuli. Her sacred animal was the dog, and small model dogs were dedicated to her by her followers. The legendary city of Aratta was in the Indus Valley. Among these decrees were those referring to lordship, wisdom, understanding, victory, judgment, and decisions. Enki, the god of wisdom, organized the earth according to the decisions of Enlil, who made the general plans. Ereshkigal, goddess of death and gloom, inhabited this nether world and was the older sister and bitter enemy of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. The Sumerians lived in southern Babylonia from 4000 to 3000 BC and had strong spiritual beliefs. Enlil was ranked higher of the two, but Enki created man. They were thought to be the offspring of the goddess Nammu and were originally united as one. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. She was created by Ninhursag to heal Enki's ailing mouth, after he had eaten her grandchildren in the "Sumerian Paradise myth.". Sister of Inanna. Ereshkigal ruled the land of no return which was known by the names of Kigal or Irkalla. This is also why these Goddesses are often referred to as Mesopotamian Goddesses as it is often difficult to attribute a Goddess to a particular group of people as her attributes and names often evolved over time. Associated with the moon, Sin was represented as the bull, with the symbol alluding to the resemblance of the waxing moon to the horns of the animal. Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians Inanna was known to Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians as Ishtar and Romans as Venus. That is why Utu was known as a god of truth and justice. The cult of Utu can be traced back to very early times. Sumerian mythology greatly influenced the myths of later civilisations including those of the Greeks, and Babylonians. Queen of the mountains an aspect of the Earth Goddess Ki. In this article, you will encounter members of the Annunaki, which were ancient Sumerian gods and goddesses considered as coming from the "royal bloodlines" of the deities. The Greeks later referred to this area as Mesopotamia which means the land between the rivers ( the Tigris and Euphrates). Sumerian and Hindu Gods and Goddesses In the world of Sumeria, Gods and Goddesses existed participating in the affairs of the Heavens, Earth, and the Netherworld. Her name is the same symbol as the one for fresh water (engur) which came from underground and had religious, fertilizing properties in Sumerian culture. Enki, the great Sumerian water god, was one of the four creation deities of Sumer, and the god of fresh water, male fertility, and knowledge. A God of wealth called Bogu and a Babylonian god of fortune related to the God Marduk named Ziku are the two Sumerian Gods of Wealth. Damkina: An Earth mother Goddess also known as Damgalnuna. In many of the most important Sumerian cities, there was a close relationship between religion and government. This cosmological shift may have been caused by the gr… Enlil - The god of air, wind, and storms, Enlil held the Tablets of Destiny. There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for every thing in the world, from rivers and mountains to making bread or pottery. There were more than 3,000 Sumerian gods and goddesses, and the four most well-known gods in the Sumerian religion were An, Ki, Enlil and Enki. Inanna visited the underworld and told her vizier, or advisor, Ninshubur that if she did not return after three days, he was to alert the gods. There is no place on earth that is so beautiful and so fertile. It can be translated as the land of six cities and six rivers. Sumerian Gods and Goddesses By Lindsey Crowell Sumerian People Sumerians believed in many Gods and Goddesses. The Sumerian Goddesses are usually depicted in human form, each representing different forces of nature. This course includes the most important and highly worshiped deities from as long ago as 5000 BC. Anunnaki- Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Anunnaki – Sumerian God of Sky Anunnaki is the resultant of An, which is the Sumerian god of the sky. She also had a sister, Ereskigal, who was queen of the underworld. In magical incantations, Nusku was one of the gods called upon to assist in the burning of sorcerers and witches. She was also believed to be the mother of Enki, the water god. Sumerian Pantheon. Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian clay tablets and cylinder seals. Main Gods and Goddesses. He has been described as a supreme lord, father, creator, and a “raging storm.” Enlil had the important task of allocating land and kingship to the kings and was a most beneficent god, responsible for planning and creating most of the features in the cosmos. The horned ‘fish’ signs undoubtedly represent Innana the goddess of love. He was also a protective guardian during the night when he watched over those who were asleep, bringing them good dreams and preventing nightmares. Together with An, there was Nanna, the moon god; Enlil, the air god; and his wife Ninlil, the air goddess. Their history is shrouded in mystery. Though Inanna was brought to life, she had to produce a substitute to take her place in the nether world. Marduk, who to the Sumerians was just another god, was the leader of the gods to the Babylonians. The principal temple of Utu, called E-babbar or White House was at Sippar. Discussion and Lecture Presentation. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Through legends, it is unclear who was more important: Enki or Enlil. Throughout Sumerian history, as a ruler of the Erech city-state, she was primarily responsible for sexual love and procreation as the life-giving goddess of love, ensuring the prosperity of the land and its people. His wife is the earth goddess Ki. Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. Enki was always seen as favoring mankind. These tablets gave him control over the fate of man and made him very powerful. This region is literally heaven. Here it is impossible for men to achieve any sort of paradise, which is reserved only for the immortal gods, not for mortal men. He is represented as the tragic victim of Inanna’s love and hate. His rains caused the land to bear grain and other food for his friends; hence his title Lord of Abundance. She chose Dumuzi, the shepherd god and her spouse to go to the underworld. The Gods were jealous and they guarded their kingdoms zealously. She was worshiped in different areas under different names such as Nintinuga, Ninkarrak, Meme, and the best known of all, Ninisina or “the lady of Isin.” These were all originally the names of other goddesses. These are the Goddesses of creation and destruction. During his journey across the skies, he saw everything. The Assyrians and Babylonians called it 'Marduk', after their chief god. The underworld was the maritime region, whose strength was overseas trade and wealth. Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian clay tablets and cylinder seals. Also known as Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, and Zirbanit. Enki was also associated with wisdom, magic, incantations, and arts and crafts. Seven goddesses stood by to assist Nammu during the birth of mankind. Between heaven and earth came the air, whose main characteristic was expansion. An was the great god in heaven and his two sons were Enki who was sent to Earth first and then Enlil. Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters The Mesopotamian scribes compiled long lists of their gods. The personality of Inanna can be divided into three quite separate parts: goddess of love and sexual behavior, especially connected with extramarital sex and lust; a warlike goddess fond of battle, violence, and power, standing next to her favorite kings as they fight; and Inanna as the planet Venus, the morning and evening star. He represented the brilliant light of the sun, which returns every day to illuminate the lives of mankind, as well as providing the warmth to enable the plants to grow. There is also reason to believe that Enlil took the place of An as the leader of the pantheon according to sources from around 2500 BC. In some myths, Enki was said to be the son of the sky-god An, and in others the son of the primordial cosmic ocean Namma. You will therefore notice many similarities in their characteristics and themes. Nammu: Represents the primeval sea from which she gave birth to the heavens (An) and to the earth mother (Ki). Inanna, twin of Utu/Shamash, children of Nannar/Sin, first born on Earth of Enlil. Lord of the abzuThe god Ea (whose Sumerian equivalent was Enki) is one of the three most powerful gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon, along with Anu and Enlil. Nammu was also known as “the lady of the mountains.” In many poems, she is said to have created mankind by making a clay figurine which was then brought to life. Also known as Ishtar. Ki is the Sumerian word for earth, and she was personified as a goddess and female counterpart to An (the heaven god). Ninlil followed her mother’s instructions and as a consequence was impregnated by “the water” of Enlil and conceived the moon god Nanna. His symbol is a horned cap. Like the Sumerians, the Babylonians spent time and effort in trying to make their gods happy. Nanshe: Associated with fishing, justice, prophecy and fertility. Inanna: Goddess of love, war, and fertility. The city of Babylon was built to honor the great god Marduk. According to legend, he filled the Tigris and Euphrates rivers with sparkling water and fish. His storms and hurricanes, evidences of his anger against his foes, brought darkness, want, and death. It is important to cover Sumerian Goddesses as their stories come from what is believed to be one of the earliest civilizations on earth. The execution of these plans was left to Enki who was wise, skillful, handy, and resourceful. I have been working on the Indus script for several decades and I found that the ‘fish’ signs have a counterpart in Sumer. Many other gods and goddesses would soon be born and lived in great cities in the land between the two rivers. Many Mesopotamian Gods have Sumerian … Inanna was the daughter of Enlil and twin sister of the sun god Utu. She was the hot babe. This course may be subject to changes. She passed seven gates into the nether world, and her jewels were removed piece by piece as she walked until she was brought naked and on her knees before Ereshkigal who turned her into a corpse. Apart from An, Enlil, Enki and Inanna, there were three other deities that make up the seven most important gods and goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 10 Sumerian Inventions and Discoveries, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. He was called Anu by the Akkadians, rulers of Mesopotamia after the conquest of Sumer in 2334 BCE by King Sargon of Akkad. According to legend, it was both Enlil and Enki who sent Labar, the cattle god, and Ashnan, the grain goddess, from heaven to earth to give mankind cattle and grain. Inanna might have been popular, but she was a ways down the totem-pole. As a protector of good and destroyer of evil, he also had a warrior aspect to his personality. He was described as bearded and long-armed, and it is thought he emerged from the doors of heaven at dawn and made a daily journey across the skies. Sumerian or Akkadian name is used as appropriate, depending on the sources or periods referred to. In another Sumerian story, called Ninurta and the Turtle, Enki’s tablet of destinies, which controls the future of humanity, is stolen by the demon Anzu. The city was then ruled by a priest king assisted by a wise council of elders made up of both men and woman. The Sumerians originally practiced a polytheistic religion, with anthropomorphic deities representing cosmic and terrestrial forces in their world. In Sumerian mythology, An was the god whose name was synonymous with the sun's zenith, or heaven. It was rich in grains, gold, and lapis lazuli. Anunnaki has been considered to be the descendants of An and his spouse, the earth goddess Ki. Until the 1800s, when the lost civilization was discovered, no one knew of the existence of a land called Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iran and Iraq). Later they were separated by their son Enlil and moved away from each other. Sumerian Gods Some of the Sumerian gods and goddesses included: Anu - Sometimes called An, Anu was the god of the heavens and king of the gods. A list of deities from Sumerian mythology. In Sumerian tradition, he was represented with a saw knife and fiery rays. During the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, Sumerian deities became more anthrocentric and were "...nature gods transformed into city gods." In Sumerian poetry, Damu is sometimes described as the daughter of Ninisina. For example, the city of Babylon was said to have been built on top of the abzu.Sumerian texts about Enki often include … Once heaven and earth had been separated, plants, animals, and human life became possible. She helped breathe life into mankind after the Great Flood. I would also like to share my favourite piecing together of the Sumerian creation myth as retold by Neal Robbins. He resides in the ocean underneath the earth called the abzu (Akkadian apsû), which was an important place in Mesopotamian cosmic geography. The legend is that Enlil found himself living in utter darkness in the sky. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirme… These children of An at some point or other included Ningirsu, Gatumdug, Baba, Adad, Enki, Enlil, Girra, Nanna, Nergal, Sara, Inana, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, … He was the patron deity of Eridu, and his most important cult center was the E-abzu or Abzu House at Eridu. Adad to Utu She set the stage for the organization of the universe, the creation of man, and the establishment of civilization. The gods, goddesses and demons, the motifs, symbols and religious beliefs of the several thousand years of Jul 27, 2017 - Explore Mesopotamia's board "Ishtar" on Pinterest. Gula: Goddess of healing and patron of medicine. Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. Sumerian Gods & Goddesses . She was the goddess of love, war, and female fertility. Ki: The Earliest Sumerian earth Goddesses. Learn about the elemental Goddesses of Earth, Air, Wind and Fire. The Sumerians were the people that inhabited Mesopotamia before the Babylonians. The Sumerian Goddesses and Gods were the foundation upon which their society was based. He was generally regarded as the offspring of Uras, or alternately of Ansar and Kisar. Many Babylonian Gods and Goddesses originate from the Sumerian beliefs. She protected the needy, providing food and shelter during hard times. The cult of Utu can be traced back to very early times. Gula often appears as a woman with stars and her dog. The major deities in the Sumerian pantheon included An, the god of the heavens, Enlil, the god of wind and storm, Enki, the god of water and human culture, Ninhursag, the goddess of fertility and the earth, Utu, the god of the sun and justice, and his father Nanna, the god of the moon. In Western mythology and religious tradition, ancient Sumer had lush vegetation and unpredictable water resources. An is the Sumerian word for heaven, and he represents the father of all the gods. In Sumerian Mythology the Anunnaki were a pantheon of good and evil gods and goddesses (duality) who came to Earth to create the human race. When air moved above earth (or when Enlil united with his mother Ki) and received the aid of water (Enki), plants and animals came into being. She had many temples with the biggest one at Nippur. The goddess Inanna was the most important female deity of the ancient period. Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. In fact it’s a roller-coaster adventure with the Gods, containing fantasy, love, bloodshed and allegorical insights into the human condition. 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